A quoi r vent les algorithmes Nos vies l heure
Google, Facebook, Amazon, mais aussi les banques et les assureurs : la constitution d'énormes bases de données (les " big data ") confère une place de plus en plus centrale aux algorithmes. L'ambition de ce livre est de montrer comment ces nouvelles techniques de calcul bouleversent notre société. À travers le classement de l'information, la personnalisation publicitaire, la recommandation de produits, le ciblage des comportements ou l'orientation des déplacements, les méga-calculateurs sont en train de s'immiscer, de plus en plus intimement, dans la vie des individus. Or, loin d'être de simples outils techniques, les algorithmes véhiculent un projet politique. Comprendre leur logique, les valeurs et le type de société qu'ils promeuvent, c'est donner aux internautes les moyens de reprendre du pouvoir dans la société des calculs. Dominique Cardon est sociologue au Laboratoire des usages d'Orange Labs et professeur associé à l'université de Marne-la-Vallée (LATTS). Avec La Démocratie Internet (Seuil, 2010) et de nombreux articles, il s'est imposé comme l'un des meilleurs spécialistes du numérique et d'Internet.
A quoi r vent les algorithmes
Parmi les espoirs et les craintes que suscite la numérisation de nos sociétés, la constitution de grandes bases de données confère une place de plus en plus centrale aux algorithmes qui gouvernent les comportements de chacun. L'ambition de ce livre est de proposer une exploration critique de la manière dont les techniques de calcul façonnent nos sociétés. Classement de l'information, personnalisation publicitaire, recommandation de produits, orientation des déplacements, mesures corporelles, etc., les calculateurs sont en train de s'immiscer, de plus en plus profondément, dans la vie des individus. Cet ouvrage voudrait montrer comment les techniques statistiques qui prennent leur essor avec les big data enferment des conceptions différentes de la société qu'elles calculent. Loin d'être de simples outils techniques, les algorithmes enferment un projet politique. La thèse défendue dans cet ouvrage est que la personnalisation des calculs est à la fois l'agent et la conséquence de l'individualisation de nos sociétés. Elle témoigne de la crise des catégories statistiques traditionnelles qui permettaient à la société de se représenter. Elle encourage le déploiement de la course méritocratique vers l'excellence, la compétition des individus pour la visibilité et le guidage personnalisé des existences. Comprendre la logique des nouveaux algorithmes du web, c'est aussi donner aux lecteurs les moyens de reprendre du pouvoir dans la société des calculs.
The Uncertain Digital Revolution
Digital information and communication technologies are seen as a threat to privacy, a step forward for freedom of expression and communication, a tool in the fight against terrorism or the source of a new economic wealth. This book revisits the major issues that have emerged with the progress of computerization by describing the context, finding the terms in which these issues were formulated and to mobilize the theoretical grids for a better understanding. It reflects on the various questions asked regarding the freedoms of individual. Between individualism and reinforced pervasive control, it allows a better understanding of the essential issues of the current "digital revolution".
New Challenges for Knowledge
Digital technologies are reshaping every field of social and economic lives, so do they in the world of scientific knowledge. “The New Challenges of Knowledge” aims at understanding how the new digital technologies alter the production, diffusion and valorization of knowledge. We propose to give an insight into the economical, geopolitical and political stakes of numeric in knowledge in different countries. Law is at the center of this evolution, especially in the case of national and international confusion about Internet, Science and knowledge.
This book provides in-depth and wide-ranging analyses of the emergence, and subsequent ubiquity, of algorithms in diverse realms of social life. The plurality of Algorithmic Cultures emphasizes: 1) algorithms’ increasing importance in the formation of new epistemic and organizational paradigms; and 2) the multifaceted analyses of algorithms across an increasing number of research fields. The authors in this volume address the complex interrelations between social groups and algorithms in the construction of meaning and social interaction. The contributors highlight the performative dimensions of algorithms by exposing the dynamic processes through which algorithms – themselves the product of a specific approach to the world – frame reality, while at the same time organizing how people think about society. With contributions from leading experts from Media Studies, Social Studies of Science and Technology, Cultural and Media Sociology from Canada, France, Germany, UK and the USA, this volume presents cutting edge empirical and conceptual research that includes case studies on social media platforms, gaming, financial trading and mobile security infrastructures.
Contemporary consumer society is increasingly saturated by digital technology, and the devices that deliver this are increasingly transforming consumption patterns. Social media, smartphones, mobile apps and digital retailing merge with traditional consumption spheres, supported by digital devices which further encourage consumers to communicate and influence other consumers to consume. Through a wide range of empirical studies which analyse the impact of digital devices, this volume explores the digitization of consumption and shows how consumer culture and consumption practices are fundamentally intertwined and mediated by digital devices. Exploring the development of new consumer cultures, leading international scholars from sociology, marketing and ethnology examine the effects on practices of consumption and marketing, through topics including big data, digital traces, streaming services, wearables, and social media’s impact on ethical consumption. Digitalizing Consumption makes an important contribution to practice-based approaches to consumption, particularly the use of market devices in consumers’ everyday consumer life, and will be of interest to scholars of marketing, cultural studies, consumer research, organization and management.
The Filter Bubble
An eye-opening account of how the hidden rise of personalization on the Internet is controlling-and limiting-the information we consume. In December 2009, Google began customizing its search results for each user. Instead of giving you the most broadly popular result, Google now tries to predict what you are most likely to click on. According to MoveOn.org board president Eli Pariser, Google's change in policy is symptomatic of the most significant shift to take place on the Web in recent years-the rise of personalization. In this groundbreaking investigation of the new hidden Web, Pariser uncovers how this growing trend threatens to control how we consume and share information as a society-and reveals what we can do about it. Though the phenomenon has gone largely undetected until now, personalized filters are sweeping the Web, creating individual universes of information for each of us. Facebook-the primary news source for an increasing number of Americans-prioritizes the links it believes will appeal to you so that if you are a liberal, you can expect to see only progressive links. Even an old-media bastion like The Washington Post devotes the top of its home page to a news feed with the links your Facebook friends are sharing. Behind the scenes a burgeoning industry of data companies is tracking your personal information to sell to advertisers, from your political leanings to the color you painted your living room to the hiking boots you just browsed on Zappos. In a personalized world, we will increasingly be typed and fed only news that is pleasant, familiar, and confirms our beliefs-and because these filters are invisible, we won't know what is being hidden from us. Our past interests will determine what we are exposed to in the future, leaving less room for the unexpected encounters that spark creativity, innovation, and the democratic exchange of ideas. While we all worry that the Internet is eroding privacy or shrinking our attention spans, Pariser uncovers a more pernicious and far- reaching trend on the Internet and shows how we can- and must-change course. With vivid detail and remarkable scope, The Filter Bubble reveals how personalization undermines the Internet's original purpose as an open platform for the spread of ideas and could leave us all in an isolated, echoing world.
This book is a collection of chapters written by experts on various aspects of big data. The book aims to explain what big data is and how it is stored and used. The book starts from the fundamentals and builds up from there. It is intended to serve as a review of the state-of-the-practice in the field of big data handling. The traditional framework of relational databases can no longer provide appropriate solutions for handling big data and making it available and useful to users scattered around the globe. The study of big data covers a wide range of issues including management of heterogeneous data, big data frameworks, change management, finding patterns in data usage and evolution, data as a service, service-generated data, service management, privacy and security. All of these aspects are touched upon in this book. It also discusses big data applications in different domains. The book will prove useful to students, researchers, and practicing database and networking engineers.
We live in the age of Computer Business Systems (CBSs)—the highly complex, computer-intensive management programs on which large organizations increasingly rely. In Mindless, Simon Head argues that these systems have come to trump human expertise, dictating the goals and strategies of a wide array of businesses, and de-skilling the jobs of middle class workers in the process. CBSs are especially dysfunctional, Head argues, when they apply their disembodied expertise to transactions between humans, as in health care, education, customer relations, and human resources management. And yet there are industries with more human approaches, as Head illustrates with specific examples, whose lead we must follow and extend to the mainstream American economy. Mindless illustrates the shortcomings of CBS, providing an in-depth and disturbing look at how human dignity is slipping as we become cogs on a white collar assembly line.
What would the global history of philosophy look like if it were told not as a story of ideas but as a series of job descriptions—ones that might have been used to fill the position of philosopher at different times and places over the past 2,500 years? The Philosopher does just that, providing a new way of looking at the history of philosophy by bringing to life six kinds of figures who have occupied the role of philosopher in a wide range of societies around the world over the millennia—the Natural Philosopher, the Sage, the Gadfly, the Ascetic, the Mandarin, and the Courtier. The result is at once an unconventional introduction to the global history of philosophy and an original exploration of what philosophy has been—and perhaps could be again. By uncovering forgotten or neglected philosophical job descriptions, the book reveals that philosophy is a universal activity, much broader—and more gender inclusive—than we normally think today. In doing so, The Philosopher challenges us to reconsider our idea of what philosophers can do and what counts as philosophy.