Journal officiel de la R publique fran aise
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Journal officiel de la R publique fran aise
France A été écrit sous une forme ou une autre pendant la plus grande partie de sa vie. Vous pouvez trouver autant d'inspiration de Journal officiel de la R publique fran aise Aussi informatif et amusant. Cliquez sur le bouton TÉLÉCHARGER ou Lire en ligne pour obtenir gratuitement le livre de titre $ gratuitement.
Avoid Costly Mistakes for Specialists and Non-Specialists Alike Bad acoustics in buildings is a nuisance that is not dealt with easily. The problem applies just as much to open-plan offices and restaurants and to production facilities and transportation stations as it does to performance halls, not to mention homes. It does not merely affect oral communication or enjoyment of music but has quite profound consequences on well-being. Gives Guidance on What to Expect from Design Teams and Contractors Building Acoustics is devoted to practical building and room acoustics, illustrated by numerous examples. It introduces the basics for the different specialists in a design team and for the client and sets out the issues for shared consideration. It guides them in the drawing up of sensible acoustic specifications. It is written for non-specialists and gives an outline of potential problems. It also shows what to consider before the construction stage. It empowers its readers to express their needs to a specialist consultant and to avoid the worst pitfalls. Covers interactions between acoustics and other disciplines Shows through numerous real-life examples the route to understanding and solving the problem Illustrates various points of views through real projects
Renewable Energy Policy Convergence in the EU
This book examines the coordination of renewable energy policies in the European Union using an innovative theoretical approach to explain national policy making. David Jacobs asks, why are national support instruments for electricity from renewable energy sources converging, even though the harmonisation of these frameworks at the European level has failed? Which causal mechanisms lead to cross-national policy similarities? And what are the implications for policy coordination in the EU? The author traces the evolution of feed-in tariffs - the most successful and most widely used support mechanism for renewable electricity - in Germany, Spain and France. He reveals increasing cross-national policy similarities in feed-in tariff design - despite the failure of harmonizing instruments at the European level. He explains these increasing policy similarities by applying policy convergence theory. Policy convergence can occur voluntarily, based on transnational communication, regulatory competition and technological innovations and these findings have important implications for European policy steering. The key to this book is the interrelation of an innovative theoretical concept (coordination of policies in the international arena via voluntary cooperation) with a very topical empirical research focus - the promotion of renewable energies in the EU. It will be essential reading for scholars and students of environmental policy, comparative politics and European studies.
Routledge Handbook of European Elections
The Routledge Handbook of European Elections explores the multifaceted dimension of the European Parliament’s (EP) electoral contests across the European Community and European Union since 1979. After setting a general empirical and theoretical framework, this collaborative project presents original contributions from leading experts in the field. Each case study adheres to a common template that makes it easy to compare data, methodology and outcomes. Every country chapter includes: a brief geopolitical profile and historical background of the Member State; a glance at the national political landscape; a brief account of the main political parties, including their attitude toward the European Union; a section on public opinion and European integration; a summary of electoral systems; an overview of all EP and national elections; an in-depth analysis of the 2009 EP electoral race; an overall theoretical interpretation of European elections. A comparative chapter closes the Handbook followed by an extensive coverage of the 2014 EP contest with a detailed analysis of the newly elected European Assembly in terms of political group and gender composition. The volume aims to enhance readers’ understanding of the European Parliament and revive their interest in the European integration process. By providing a wide range of national and European facts and figures, this investigation represents a comprehensive reference guide to scholars, practitioners and students of the European Parliament, European elections, political parties, European Union, comparative and gender politics.
Facing the Second World War
Covering the period from the late 1930s up to the spring of 1940, this book offers the first systematic comparison of how two countries, Britain and France, responded to the possibility and then reality of total war by examining developments in three dimensions: strategic, domestic political, and political economic. To date, studies of French and British policies during this period have focused almost exclusively on diplomatic and military events. Yet because twentieth-century war demanded a massive effort on the part of nations and societies, its study requires a broader approach, one that encompasses the political, social, and economic dimensions as well as the links between them. Using a wide array of archival and secondary sources, including the records of government departments, trade unions, business groups, and political parties, the book demonstrates that the British were more successful in managing the strains of modern industrial war than the French. Whereas inFrance political, economic, and military developments combined to produce a multi-faceted crisis by early 1940, imperilling the war effort against Germany, developments in Britain followed a different course that laid the political and economic foundations for a long war. The book's wide-ranging approach will interest political, social, economic, and military historians as well as historians of modern Europe, France, and Britain. More precisely, it addresses such current historical debates as the nature of the political Right and Left in Europe during the 1930s, the extent of rearmament and economic mobilization, and the causes of France's defeat in 1940. The book will also interest political scientists, particularly International Relations (IR). As an extended comparison of how two liberal democracies met the challenge of war, it addresses debates concerning the relationship between democratic regimes and capabilities for war, the influence of domestic versus systemic factors on national policies, and the nature and relative performance of different types of political economic regimes.
French Royalism Since 1870
"Let them come forward, they are thirsty for the sight of a King," said Henri IV to his followerswho were trying to push back the curious crowds as he entered Paris in February, 1594. It is perhaps to be regretted that seven kings (to say nothing of two emperors) have since more than quenched the French's taste for royalty, because they have long been in need of - and periodically have sought - a symbol of national unity. Modem-day France has had far more than her share of revolutions, counterrevolutions, uprisings, days, coups, affairs, crises, scandals - and constitution drafting. While it would be an over simplification to interpret this endemic strife as a seesaw conflict between two well-integrated blocs with the ideology of the Great Revolution as the dividing issue, the fact remains that since 1789 political divisions and quarrels arnong Frenchmen have been deep, bitter, and fundamental. After 1870, a Republic may have been the one solution which divided Frenchmen the least (to borrow an expression from Monsieur Thiers) ; but like any and all of the preceding alternatives it was to incur the relentless, irreconcilable opposition of important segments of the population. This study deals with those individuals and organ izations which continued to advocate, and sought to bring about a return to the monarchy under the Third and Fourth Republics.
Maxime Weygand and Civil military Relations in Modern France
Between the two World Wars, particularly in the 1930s, the relations between the French civilian government and the Army went through a series of devastating changes. These turbulent developments culminated in the refusal of the Armyâe(tm)s leaders to obey their civilian superiors during the catastrophe of June 1940, the first such insubordination in modern French republican history. The author examines every aspect of this disastrous process, pursuing his analysis largely through the activities and thought of General Maxime Weygand, who, although deeply affected by the loss of civilâe"military trust, contributed importantly to it and eventually led the Army in its disobedience. Mr. Bankwitz finds the seeds of the disaffection between the French civilian authorities and the military in a variety of interconnected elements. During the early 1930s, for example, the soldiers became convinced that the Governmentâe(tm)s policies concerning service time, military appropriations, and disarmament were pushing the Army to the brink of ruin. The Third Republic was highly unstable politically, as was shockingly demonstrated in February 1934 when the Government leaders resigned in the face of violent disorders in Paris attendant on the Stavisky Affair which climaxed two years of internal strife. Among soldiers, aware of the Governmentâe(tm)s weakness, suspicious of its alleged antimilitarism, and fearful of the approaching conflict with Nazi Germany, there was a growing and almost unconscious tendency to think in terms of the possible need to extend the protection of the Army to the nation in its difficulties. In this way, important elements in the officer corps began, psychologically and emotionally, âeoeto prepare for eventual intervention in national political affairs.âe General Weygand, whom the author interviewed on numerous occasions, held the personal conviction that the distrust between the civilian and military establishments was the root cause of French defeat. Mr. Bankwitz is convinced that this opinion of Weygandâe(tm)s is possibly the single most important clue to the puzzling connection between the civilâe"military relationship and the collapse of June 1940. Granting all the other factors contributing to the defeat, it would be impossible to exaggerate the historical importance of Weygandâe(tm)s disobedienceâe"an act which also opened the way for later military saviors and for the ascendant role of the Army in French politics. This is the first scholarly study in depth of the crucial prewar phase of the French armyâe(tm)s development into a disruptive force in national life. A chapter from the portentous twentiethâe"century story of the soldier in politics, it has relevance now to situations already formed or forming in other western societies. The value of the book is greatly enhanced by an encyclopedic bibliography of writing on French political history in this century.
French Royalism under the Third and Fourth Republics
"Let them come forward, they are thirsty for the sight of a King," said Henri IV to his followers who were trying to push back the curious crowds as he entered Paris in February, I594. It is perhaps to be regretted that seven kings (to say nothing of two emperors) have since more than quenched the French's taste for royalty, because they have long been in need of - and periodically have sought - a symbol of national unity. Modern-day France has had far more than her share of revolutions, counterrevolutions, uprisings, days, coups, affairs, crises, scandals - and constitution drafting. While it would be an over simplification to interpret this endemie strife as a seesaw conflict between two well-integrated blocs with the ideology of the Great Revolution as the dividing issue, the fact remains that since I789 political divisions and quarrels among Frenchmen have been deep, bitter, and fundamental. may have been the one solution which After I870, a Republic divided Frenchmen the least (to borrow an expression from Monsieur Thiers); but like any and all of the preceding alternatives it was to incur the relentless, irreconcilable opposition of important segments of the population. This study deals with those individuals and organ izations which continued to advocate, and sought to bring about a return to the monarchy under the Third and Fourth Republies.