La transmission en jeu
" Dans l'horlogerie suisse, la tradition, c'est le savoir-faire ", m'avait fait remarquer un horloger sur un stand de la Foire professionnelle de Bâle. " Seulement, avait-il poursuivi, ce savoir est secret. C'est notre arme la plus efficace pour nous différencier des concurrents. Vous, l'anthropologue, vous n'y aurez pas accès ! " J'ai eu beau multiplier les prises de contact et les tentatives de rencontre avec les acteurs de la branche, il est vrai que, partout, je me suis cogné au secret et à ses multiples manifestations : silences, rétention d'informations, clauses de confidentialité, propriété intellectuelle, restriction d'accès, exclusivité... À force de persévérance, je suis finalement parvenu à mener un travail d'immersion de quatre années dans ce monde. Situé à la croisée de l'anthropologie des savoirs, des techniques et du patrimoine, le présent ouvrage propose une analyse complète de l'industrie horlogère helvétique en restituant le point de vue des gens qui la vivent au quotidien et en faisant apparaître une des tensions qui l'anime actuellement. Alors qu'il n'a jamais autant été question de transmission du savoir-faire et de patrimoine, nombreux sont les horlogers qui s'inquiètent pour la passation de leur métier et de ses spécificités dont ils craignent la perte inéluctable. Posant un regard sur l'actualité et l'histoire récente de cette industrie, ce livre est une invitation à comprendre ce qui a progressivement façonné un tel état de fait.
This study opens a new portal into the history of globalisation by examining several large-scale projects that, at the beginning of the twentieth century, shared a grand yet unachievable goal: bringing order to the world. Drawing from a broad array of archival materials, the book reveals how expanding commercial relations, growing international scientific agreements, and an imperial monopolisation of the political realm spawned ambitious global projects.
Industrial Development Technology Transfer and Global Competition
The phenomena of Japan emerging as one of the most competitive industrial nations in the twentieth century and the general shift of competitiveness to East Asia since the 1980s have been widely studied by many scholars from different fields of the social sciences. Drawing on sources from Japanese, Swiss, and American archives, the historical analysis of this book tackles a wide range of actors and sheds light on the various processes that enabled Japanese watch companies to transfer technology and expand commercially starting in the second half of the nineteenth century. By exploring the case of the watch industry, this book serves to establish a better understanding of the origins of the competitiveness of Japanese manufacturing and its evolution until its decline in the post?bubble economy (in the 1990s and 2000s).
Organizing Global Technology Flows
Research on the international transfer of technology in economics and management literature has primarily focused on the role of countries and that of companies, in particular multinational enterprises (MNEs). Similarly, economic and business historians have tended to view international technology transfer as a way for economically ‘backward’ countries to acquire new technologies in order to catch up with more developed economies. This volume provides a more in-depth understanding of how the international transfer of technologies is organized and, in particular, challenges the core-periphery model that is still dominant in the extant literature. By looking beyond national systems of innovation, and statistics on foreign trade, patent registration and foreign direct investment, the book sheds more light on the variety of actors involved in the transfer process (including engineers, entrepreneurs, governments, public bodies, firms, etc.) and on how they make use of a broad set of national and international institutions facilitating technology transfer. Put differently, the volume offers a better understanding of the complexity of global technology flows by examining the role and actions of the different actors involved. By bringing together a number of original case studies covering many different countries over the period from the late 19th to the 21st century, the book demonstrates how technology is being transferred through complex processes, involving a variety of actors from several countries using the national and international institutional frameworks.
Science in the Twentieth Century
With over forty chapters, written by leading scholars, this comprehensive volume represents the best work in America, Europe, and Asia. Geographical diversity of the authors is reflected in the different perspectives devoted to the subject, and all major disciplinary developments are covered. There are also sections concerning the countries that have made the most significant contributions, the relationship between science and industry, the importance of instrumentation, and the cultural influence of scientific modes of thought. Students and professionals will come to appreciate how, and why, science has developed - as with any other human activity, it is subject to the dynamics of society and politics.
Mobility in History
Since 2003 the International Association for the History of Traffic, Transport and Mobility (T2M) has served as a trade-free zone, fostering a new interdisciplinary vitality in the now-flourishing study of the History of Mobility. In its Yearbook, "Mobility in History," T2M surveys these developments in the form of a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of research in the field, presenting synopses of recent research, international reviews of research across many countries, thematic reviews, and retrospective assessments of classic works in the area. "Mobility in History" provides an essential and comprehensive overview of the current situation of Mobility studies.
Competitive Advantage on the Shop Floor
William Lazonick explores how technological change has interacted with the organization of work, with major consequences for national competitiveness and industrial leadership. Looking at Britain, the United States, and Japan from the nineteenth century to the present, he explains changes in their status as industrial superpowers. Lazonick stresses the importance for industrial leadership of cooperative relations between employers and shop-floor workers. Such relations permit employers to use new technologies to their maximum potential, which in turn transforms the high fixed costs inherent in these technologies into low unit costs and large market shares. Cooperative relations can also lead employers to invest in the skills of workers themselves--skills that enable shop-floor workers to influence quality as well as quantity of production. To build cooperative shop-floor relations, successful employers have been willing to pay workers higher wages than they could have secured elsewhere in the economy. They have also been willing to offer workers long-term employment security. These policies, Lazonick argues, have not come at the expense of profits but rather have been a precondition for making profits. Focusing particularly on the role of labor-management relations in fostering "flexible mass production" in Japan since the 1950s, Lazonick criticizes those economists and politicians who, in the face of the Japanese challenge, would rely on free markets alone to restore the international competitiveness of industry in Britain and the United States.
History of modern physics
Helge Kragh A été écrit sous une forme ou une autre pendant la plus grande partie de sa vie. Vous pouvez trouver autant d'inspiration de History of modern physics Aussi informatif et amusant. Cliquez sur le bouton TÉLÉCHARGER ou Lire en ligne pour obtenir gratuitement le livre de titre $ gratuitement.
Mobility in History
Peter Norton A été écrit sous une forme ou une autre pendant la plus grande partie de sa vie. Vous pouvez trouver autant d'inspiration de Mobility in History Aussi informatif et amusant. Cliquez sur le bouton TÉLÉCHARGER ou Lire en ligne pour obtenir gratuitement le livre de titre $ gratuitement.
The Instinct of Workmanship and the State of the Industrial Arts
One of the great thinkers of the early 20th century, American economist and sociologist THORSTEIN BUNDE VEBLEN (1857-1929) is best remembered for coining the phrase "conspicuous consumption." This 1914 volume is considered by some Veblen's most important work, showcasing the underpinnings of his theories and speculations. Here, Veblen explores... . the battle between instinct and habit . how instinct shaped primitive technologies . how modern industrial arts reflect a collective instinct . the technology of the "predatory culture" . the differences between "peaceable ownership" and the "competitive system" . and more. ALSO FROM COSIMO: Veblen's The Vested Interests and the Common Man, The Theory of Business Enterprise, Imperial Germany and the Industrial Revolution, An Inquiry into the Nature of Peace and the Terms of Its Perpetuation, and The Engineers and the Price System